MOJIANG, China (AP) — Deep within the lush mountain valleys of southern China lies the doorway to a mine shaft that after harbored bats with the closest identified relative of the COVID-19 virus.

The space is of intense scientific curiosity as a result of it might maintain clues to the origins of the coronavirus that has killed greater than 1.7 million folks worldwide. Yet for scientists and journalists, it has turn into a black gap of no info due to political sensitivity and secrecy.

A bat analysis staff visiting just lately managed to take samples however had them confiscated, two folks aware of the matter stated. Specialists in coronaviruses have already been ordered to not communicate to the press. And a staff of Associated Press journalists was tailed by plainclothes police in a number of vehicles who blocked entry to roads and websites in late November.

More than a yr because the first identified individual was contaminated with the coronavirus, an AP investigation reveals the Chinese authorities is strictly controlling all analysis into its origins, clamping down on some whereas actively selling fringe theories that it may have already come from exterior China.

The authorities is handing out lots of of 1000’s of {dollars} in grants to scientists researching the virus’ origins in southern China and affiliated with the navy, the AP has discovered. But it’s monitoring their findings and mandating that the publication of any knowledge or analysis should be authorised by a brand new job pressure managed by China’s cupboard, underneath direct orders from President Xi Jinping, in response to inside paperwork obtained by The AP. A uncommon leak from throughout the authorities, the handfuls of pages of unpublished paperwork affirm what many have already lengthy suspected: The clampdown comes from the highest.

As a outcome, little or no has been made public. Authorities are severely limiting info and impeding cooperation with worldwide scientists.

“What did they find?” requested Gregory Gray, a Duke University epidemiologist who oversees a lab in China finding out the transmission of infectious illnesses from animals to folks. “Maybe their data were not conclusive, or maybe they suppressed the data for some political reason. I don’t know…I wish I did.”

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The AP investigation was based mostly on dozens of interviews with Chinese and international scientists and officers, together with public notices, leaked emails, inside knowledge and the paperwork from China’s cupboard and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It reveals a sample of presidency secrecy and top-down management that has been evident all through the pandemic.

As the AP beforehand documented, this tradition has delayed warnings in regards to the pandemic, blocked the sharing of knowledge with the World Health Organization and hampered early testing. Scientists aware of China’s public well being system say the identical practices apply to delicate analysis.

“They only select people they can trust, those that they can control,” stated a public well being professional who works usually with the China CDC, declining to be recognized out of concern of retribution. “Military teams and others are working hard on this, but whether it gets published all depends on the outcome.”

The pandemic has crippled Beijing’s fame on the worldwide stage, and China’s leaders are cautious of any findings that would counsel they had been negligent in its unfold. The Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Health Commission, that are managing analysis into the coronavirus’ origins, didn’t reply to requests for remark.

“The novel coronavirus has been discovered in many parts of the world,” China’s international ministry stated in a fax. “Scientists should carry out international scientific research and cooperation on a global scale.”

Some Chinese scientists say little has been shared just because nothing of significance has been found.

“We’ve been looking, but we haven’t found it,” stated Zhang Yongzhen, a famend Chinese virologist.

China’s leaders are removed from alone in politicizing analysis into the origins of the virus. In April, President Donald Trump shelved a U.S.-funded venture to determine harmful animal illnesses in China and Southeast Asia, successfully severing ties between Chinese and American scientists and complicating the seek for virus origins. Trump additionally has accused China of setting off the pandemic by an accident at a Wuhan lab — a idea that some consultants say can’t be dominated out however as but has no proof behind it.

Research into COVID-19’s origins is vital to the prevention of future pandemics. Although a World Health Organization worldwide staff plans to go to China in early January to research what began the pandemic, its members and agenda needed to be authorised by China.

Some public well being consultants warn that China’s refusal to grant additional entry to worldwide scientists has jeopardized the worldwide collaboration that pinpointed the supply of the SARS outbreak almost twenty years in the past. Jonna Mazet, a founding govt director of the UC Davis One Health Institute, stated the shortage of collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists was “a disappointment” and the shortcoming of American scientists to work in China “devastating.”

“There’s so much speculation around the origins of this virus,” Mazet stated. “We need to step back…and let scientists get the real answer without the finger-pointing.”


The hidden hunt for the origins of COVID-19 reveals how the Chinese authorities has tried to steer the narrative.

The search began within the Huanan Seafood market in Wuhan, a sprawling, low-slung complicated the place most of the first human coronavirus circumstances had been detected. Scientists initially suspected the virus got here from wild animals bought out there, resembling civet cats implicated within the unfold of SARS.

In mid-December final yr, Huanan vendor Jiang Dafa began noticing folks had been falling unwell. Among the primary was a part-time employee in his 60s who helped clear carcasses at a stall; quickly, a buddy he performed chess with additionally fell unwell. A 3rd, a seafood monger in his 40s, was contaminated and later died.

Patients started trickling into close by hospitals, triggering alarms by late December that alerted the China CDC. CDC chief Gao Fu instantly despatched a staff to research.

At first, analysis seemed to be shifting swiftly.

Overnight on Jan. 1, the market all of the sudden was ordered shut, barring distributors from fetching their belongings, Jiang stated. China CDC researchers collected 585 environmental samples from door handles, sewage and the ground of the market, and authorities sprayed the complicated down with sanitizer. Later, they’d cart out the whole lot inside and incinerate it.

Internal China CDC knowledge obtained by the AP reveals that by Jan. 10 and 11, researchers had been sequencing dozens of environmental samples from Wuhan. Gary Kobinger, a Canadian microbiologist advising WHO, emailed his colleagues to share his issues that the virus originated on the market.

“This corona(virus) is very close to SARS,” he wrote on Jan. 13. “If we put aside an accident…then I would look at the bats in these markets (sold and ‘wild’).”

By late January, Chinese state media introduced that 33 of the environmental samples had examined optimistic. In a report back to WHO, officers stated 11 specimens had been greater than 99% just like the brand new coronavirus. They additionally instructed the U.N. well being company that rats and mice had been widespread out there, and that many of the optimistic samples had been clustered in an space the place distributors traded in wildlife.

In the meantime, Jiang prevented telling folks he labored at Huanan due to the stigma. He criticized the political tussle between China and the U.S.

“It’s pointless to blame anyone for this disease,” Jiang stated.

As the virus continued spreading quickly into February, Chinese scientists revealed a burst of analysis papers on COVID-19. Then a paper by two Chinese scientists proposed with out concrete proof that the virus may have already leaked from a Wuhan laboratory close to the market. It was later taken down, nevertheless it raised the necessity for picture management.

Internal paperwork present that the state quickly started requiring all coronavirus research in China to be authorised by high-level authorities officers — a coverage that critics say paralyzed analysis efforts.

A discover from a China CDC lab on February 24 put in new approval processes for publication underneath “important instructions” from Chinese President Xi Jinping. Other notices ordered CDC workers to not share any knowledge, specimens or different info associated to the coronavirus with exterior establishments or people.

Then on March 2, Xi emphasised “coordination” on coronavirus analysis, state media reported.

The subsequent day, China’s cupboard, the State Council, centralized all COVID-19 publication underneath a particular job pressure. The discover, obtained by the AP and marked “not to be made public,” was much more sweeping in scope than the sooner CDC notices, making use of to all universities, corporations and medical and analysis establishments.

The order stated communication and publication of analysis needed to be orchestrated like “a recreation of chess” underneath directions from Xi, and propaganda and public opinion groups had been to “guide publication.” It went on to warn that those that publish with out permission, “causing serious adverse social impact, shall be held accountable.”

“The regulations are very strict, and they don’t make any sense,” stated a former China CDC deputy director, who declined to be named as a result of they had been instructed to not communicate to the media. “I think it’s political, because people overseas could find things being said there that might contradict what China says, so it’s all being controlled.”

After the key orders, the tide of analysis papers slowed to a trickle. Although China CDC researcher Liu Jun returned to the market almost 20 occasions to gather some 2,000 samples over the next months, nothing was launched about what they revealed.

On May 25, CDC chief Gao lastly broke the silence across the market in an interview with China’s Phoenix TV. He stated that, not like the environmental samples, no animal samples from the market had examined optimistic.

The announcement shocked scientists who didn’t even know Chinese officers had taken samples from animals. It additionally dominated out the market because the probably supply of the virus, together with additional analysis that confirmed most of the first circumstances had no ties to it.


With the market proving a lifeless finish, scientists turned extra consideration to attempting to find the virus at its probably supply: Bats.

Nearly a thousand miles away from the moist market in Wuhan, bats inhabit the maze of underground limestone caves in Yunnan province. With its wealthy, loamy soil, fog banks and dense plant development, this space in southern China bordering Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar is among the most biologically various on earth.

At one Yunnan cave visited by the AP, with thick roots hanging over the doorway, bats fluttered out at nightfall and flew over the roofs of a close-by small village. White droppings splattered the bottom close to an altar within the rear of the cave, and Buddhist prayer strings of crimson and yellow twine hung from the stalactites. Villagers stated the cave had been used as a sacred place presided over by a Buddhist monk from Thailand.

Contact like this between bats and other people praying, searching or mining in caves alarms scientists. The coronavirus’ genetic code is strikingly just like that of bat coronaviruses, and most scientists suspect COVID-19 jumped into people both immediately from a bat or through an middleman animal.

Since bats harboring coronaviruses are present in China and all through Southeast Asia, the wild animal host of COVID-19 may very well be anyplace within the area, stated Linfa Wang at Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore.

“There is a bat somewhere with a 99.9% similar virus to the coronavirus,” Wang stated. “Bats don’t respect these borders.

COVID-19 research is proceeding in countries such as Thailand, where Dr. Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, a coronavirus expert, is leading teams of scientists deep into the countryside to collect samples from bats. During one expedition in August, Supaporn told the AP the virus could be found “anywhere” there have been bats.

Chinese scientists shortly began testing potential animal hosts. Records present that Xia Xueshan, an infectious illnesses professional, obtained a 1.4 million RMB ($214,000) grant to display animals in Yunnan for COVID-19. State media reported in February that his staff collected lots of of samples from bats, snakes, bamboo rats and different animals, and ran an image of masked scientists in white lab coats huddled round a big, caged porcupine.

Then the federal government restrictions kicked in. Data on the samples nonetheless has not been made public, and Xia didn’t reply to requests for an interview. Although Xia has co-authored greater than a dozen papers this yr, an AP evaluation reveals, onlytwo had been on COVID-19, and neither centered on its origins.

Today, the caves that scientists as soon as surveyed are underneath shut watch by the authorities. Security brokers tailed the AP staff in three areas throughout Yunnan, and stopped journalists from visiting the cave the place researchers in 2017 recognized the species of bats chargeable for SARS. At an entrance to a second location, a large cave teeming with vacationers taking selfies, authorities shut the gate on the AP.

“We just got a call from the county,” stated a park official, earlier than an armed policeman confirmed up.

Particularly delicate is the mine shaft the place the closest relative of the COVID-19 virus — known as “RaTG13” — was discovered.

RaTG13 was found after an outbreak in 2012, when six males cleansing the bat-filled shaft fell unwell with mysterious bouts of pneumonia, killing three. The Wuhan Institute of Virology and the China CDC each studied bat coronaviruses from this shaft. And though most scientists consider the COVID-19 virus had its origins in nature, some say it or a detailed relative may have already been transported to Wuhan and leaked by mistake.

Wuhan Institute of Virology bat professional Shi Zhengli has repeatedly denied this idea, however Chinese authorities haven’t but allowed international scientists in to research.

Some state-backed scientists say analysis is continuing as ordinary. Famed virologist Zhang, who obtained a 1.5 million RMB ($230,000) grant to seek for the virus’ origins, stated partnering scientists are sending him samples from throughout, together with from bats in Guizhou in southern China and rats in Henan lots of of miles north.

“Bats, mice, are there any new coronaviruses in them? Do they have this particular coronavirus?” Zhang stated. “We’ve been doing this work for over a decade. It’s not like we just started today.”

Zhang declined to substantiate or touch upon stories that his lab was briefly closed after publishing the virus’ genetic sequence forward of authorities. He stated he hasn’t heard of any particular restrictions on publishing papers, and the one evaluation his papers undergo is a routine scientific one by his establishment.

But scientists with out state backing complain that getting approval to pattern animals in southern China is now extraordinarily tough, and that little is understood in regards to the findings of government-sponsored groups.


Even as they managed analysis inside China, Chinese authorities promoted theories that advised the virus got here from elsewhere.

The authorities gave Bi Yuhai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences scientist tapped to spearhead origins analysis, a 1.5 million RMB grant ($230,000), information present. A paper co-authored by Bi advised an outbreak in a Beijing market in June may have already been brought on by packages of contaminated frozen fish from Europe.

China’s government-controlled media used the speculation to counsel the unique outbreak in Wuhan may have already began with seafood imported from overseas — a notion worldwide scientists reject. WHO has stated it is rather unlikely that individuals may be contaminated with COVID-19 through packaged meals, and that it’s “highly speculative” to counsel COVID-19 didn’t begin in China. Bi didn’t reply to requests for an interview, and China has not supplied sufficient virus samples for a definitive evaluation.

The Chinese state press additionally has extensively lined preliminary research from Europe suggesting COVID-19 was present in wastewater samples in Italy and Spain final yr. But scientists have already largely dismissed these research, and the researchers themselves acknowledged they didn’t discover sufficient virus fragments to find out conclusively if it was the coronavirus.

And in the previous few weeks, Chinese state media has taken out of context analysis from a German scientist, decoding it to counsel that the pandemic started in Italy. The scientist, Alexander Kekule, director of the Institute for Biosecurity Research, has stated repeatedly that he believes the virus first emerged in China.

Internal paperwork present the Chinese authorities additionally has sponsored research on the doable position of the Southeast Asian pangolin, a scaly anteater as soon as prized in conventional Chinese drugs, as an middleman animal host. Within the span of three days in February, Chinese scientists put out fourseparatepaperson coronaviruses associated to COVID-19 in trafficked Malayan pangolins from Southeast Asia seized by customs officers in Guangdong.

But many consultants now say the speculation is unlikely. Wang of the Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore stated the seek for the coronavirus in pangolins didn’t look like “scientifically driven.” He stated blood samples can be probably the most conclusive proof of COVID-19’s presence within the uncommon mammals, and thus far, no incriminating matches have already been discovered.

WHO has stated greater than 500 species of different animals, together with cats, ferrets and hamsters, are being studied as doable middleman hosts for COVID-19.

The Chinese authorities can also be limiting and controlling the seek for affected person zero by the re-testing of outdated flu samples.

Chinese hospitals acquire 1000’s of samples from sufferers with flu-like signs each week and retailer them in freezers. They may simply be examined once more for COVID-19, though politics may then decide whether or not the outcomes are made public, stated Ray Yip, the founding director of the U.S. CDC workplace in China.

“They’d be crazy not to do it,” Yip stated. “The political leadership will wait for that information to see, does this information make China look stupid or not?…If it makes China look stupid, they won’t.”

In the U.S., CDC officers way back examined roughly 11,000 early samples collected underneath the flu surveillance program since Jan. 1. And in Italy, researchers just lately discovered a boy who had fallen unwell in November 2019 and later examined optimistic for the coronavirus.

But in China, scientists have already solely revealed retrospective testing knowledge from two Wuhan flu surveillance hospitals — out of at the very least 18 in Hubei province alone and nicely over 500 throughout the nation. The knowledge contains simply 520 samples out of the 330,000 collected in China final yr.

These huge gaps within the analysis aren’t due simply to a scarcity of testing but in addition to a scarcity of transparency. Internal knowledge obtained by the AP reveals that by Feb. 6, the Hubei CDC had examined over 100 samples in Huanggang, a metropolis southeast of Wuhan. But the outcomes have already not been made public.

The little info that has dribbled out suggests the virus was circulating nicely exterior Wuhan in 2019 — a discovering that would increase awkward questions for Chinese officers about their early dealing with of the outbreak. Chinese researchers discovered {that a} youngster lots of of miles from Wuhan had fallen unwell with the virus by Jan. 2, suggesting it was spreading extensively in December. But earlier samples weren’t examined, in response to a scientist with direct data of the examine.

“There was a very deliberate choice of the time period to study, because going too early could have been too sensitive,” stated the scientist, who declined to be named out of concern of retribution.

A WHO report written in July however revealed in November stated Chinese authorities had recognized 124 circumstances in December 2019, together with 5 circumstances exterior Wuhan. Among WHO’s goals for its upcoming go to to China are critiques of hospital information earlier than December.

Coronavirus professional Peter Daszak, a member of the WHO staff, stated figuring out the pandemic’s supply shouldn’t be used to assign guilt.

“We’re all part of this together,” he stated. “And until we realize that, we’re never going to get rid of this problem.”


Kang reported from Beijing and Cheng reported from London. Associated Press journalists Han Guan Ng and Emily Wang in Wuhan, China, Haven Daley in Stinson Beach, California, and Tassanee Vejpongsa in Kanchanaburi, Thailand, contributed to this report.

Follow Dake Kang, Sam McNeil and Maria Cheng on Twitter at @dakekang, @stmcneil and @mylcheng.

Contact AP’s world investigative staff at

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